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TowNSEND's  Library 






28  Years  of  Labor,  and  an  Expenditure  of  $25,000,  by  a 
Private  Citizen,  on  a  Work  of  National  Importance. 

50th  Congress, 
1st  Session, 

S.  1,700. 


January  26,  1888, 

Mr.  Hawley  introduced  the  following  bill,  which  was  read  twice  and  referred  to  the 
Committee  on  the  Library  : 

A    BILL 

Authorizing  the  Librarian  of  Congress  to  purchase  "  Townsend's  Library  of  National, 
State,  and  Individual  Records,  comprising  a  collection  of  Historical  Records 
concerning  the  Origin,  Progress,  and  Consequences  of  the  late  Civil  War. 

Be  it  enacted,  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the   United  States  of 
America,  in  Congress  assetnbled : 

That  the  Librarian  of  Congress  be  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  and  directed  to 
purchase  "  Townsend's  Library  of  National,  State,  and  Individual  Records,  compris- 
ing a  collection  of  Historical  Records  concerning  the  Origin,  Progress,  and  Conse- 
quences of  the  late  Civil  War,"  at  a  price  not  exceeding  thousand  dollars 
which  amount,  or  so  much  thereof  as  may  be  necessary,  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby 
appropriated  out  of  any  money  in  the  Treasury  not  otherwise  appropriated. 

"There  is  not  an  hour,  during  a  Session  of  Congress,  when  some  fact,  to  confirm 
history  or  refute  misrepresentation,  is  not  found  necessary,  and  the  difficulty  of 
obtaining  a  place  to  which  immediate  and  reliable  reference  can  be  had,  is  con- 
stantly felt.  Mr.  Townsend  has  supplied  this  important  desideratum." — Washington 

Glass     ^^JA- 
Book    Tj<<>L 




THE    INDEX    TO    THE    DIGEST,    WHICH    IS    THE    KEY    TO    THE    WHOLE    WORK,     IS    IN    ONE    VOLUME. 

3.,  ^ 

TowNSEiND's  Library 

fyim^,  State  and  Ipividu/l  fJECoi^DS 





28  Years  of  Labor,  and  an  Expenditure  of  $25,000, 

by  a  Private  Citizen,  on  a  Work  of 

National  Importance. 

Styles  &  Cash,  Printers  and   Stationers,  77  Eighth  Avenue. 




National,  State  and  Individual  Records. 


The  Comte  de  Paris. — "  It  is  a  work  of  the  greatest  value, 
but  seems  beyond  the  strength  of  a  single  man  in  the  limits  of  a 
single  life." 

General  Grant. — "  1  heartily  endorse  the  sentiments  ex- 
pressed by  the  Comte  de  'Paris,  in  his  letter  of  July  27,  1883." 

Governor  Horatio  Seymour. — "I  look  upon  the  work  as  a 
miracle  of  labor,  arrangement,  and  execution.  It  is  not  only 
necessary  to  the  historian,  but  will  be  of  great  value  to  our  gov- 
ernment in  the  event  of  war  or  hostile  complications  with  other 

Dr.  Cogswell,  the  Organizer  and  First  Superintendent  of  the 
Astor  Library. — "As  a  chronological  and  synchronous  record  of 
the  events,  it  is  mo're  minute,  and  more  authentic  than  could  be 
formed  in  any  other  way  ;  and  as  documentary  material  for  the 
historian  of  those  events,  it  is  absolutely  indispensable.  Its 
voluminousness  might  render  it  inconvenient  in  use,  but  for  its 
perfectly  systematic  arrangement,  which,  with  its  minute  aiid  com- 
plete index,  obviate  all  objections  on  that  score,  and  render 
THE  WORK  as  easy  to  be  consulted  as  if  it  were  comprised  in  a  single 
volume.  The  manifest  labor,  time  and  cost,  which  must  have 
been  bestowed  upon  this  great  work,"  says  Dr.  Cogswell,  in  con- 
clusion, "  warrants  the  inference  that  it  will  not  be  duplicated  ; 
and  hence  it  is  to  be  hoped  it  will  belong  to  the  Nation,  and 
be  deposited  where  it  will  be  most  convenient  of  access." 

Williain  Cu/len  Bryant. — "  The  age  has  given  birth  to  few- 
literary  undertakings  that  will  bear  comparison  with  this  work. 
The  compiling  of  a  lexicon  in  any  language  is  nothing  to  it. 
The  forty  academicians  who  compiled  the  Dictionary  of  the 
French  Language  had  a  far  less  laborious  task." 

Rev.  Henry  W.  Bellows.,  Presidefit  of  the  United  States  Sani- 
tary Commission. — "  I  do  not  believe  that  another  man  could  be 
found  in  the  country  who  would  have  devoted  his  life,  almost 
entirely,  to  an  undertaking  of  like  importance  and  magnitude." 
Adding:  "It  seems  almost  a  providential  felicity  that  such  a 
curious  and  unique  record  exists." 

Col.  Duncan  K.  McRae,  of  the  late  Confederate  Artny  and  for 
some  time  Agent  for  the  Confederate  Government  in  Europe. — "  I 
regard  Mr.  Townsend's  work  as  one  of  wonderful  val-ue.  It 
really  contains  a  better  source  of  supply  for  a  history  of  the  war 
than  simply  the  official  records,  for  he  has  many  (the  minutest 
often  of  those),  and  in  addition  his  cotemporaneous  journalistic 
narrative,  data  and  statistics,  worked  up  with  such  elaborate  and 
systematic  method  and  detail,  affords  every  facility  for  accurate 
history.  Its  fairness,  impartiality  and  completeness  cannot  be 
too  highly  extolled." 

Hon.  John  A.  Dix. — "  I  have  watched  it  in  its  progress  with 
great  interest,  and  a  high  appreciation  of  its  great  value.  Fifty 
years  from  this  time  it  will,  undoubtedly,  have  a  value  which  can- 
not be  estimated — as  indeed  it  has  now." 

Rev.  S.  Irenaeus  Prime,  Editor  of  the  New  York  Observer. — 
"  It  is,  beyond  all  dispute,  the  most  remarkable  compilation  of 
ancient  or  modern  times — having  no  equal  before  or  since  the 
invention  of  the  art  of  printing — and  future  ages  will  prize  it  as 
one  of  the  chief  memorials  of  the  first  century  of  American 

General  P.  G.  Beauregard. — "  After  an  examination  of  the 
work,  General  Beauregard  expressed  the  decided  opinion  that  it 
should  be  the  property  of  tiie  nation." 

Quartermaster  ■  General  M.  C.  Meigs  said  :  "It  will  be  impos- 
sible to  duplicate  Mr.  Townsend's  work,  and  it  must  remain  the 
most  complete  and  minute  journal  of  the  events  of  the  Great 

The  Boston  Transcript. — ''  It  is  a  wonderful  work,  and  of 
great  interest  to  all." 

The  Boston  Post. — "  There  is  one  gentleman  in  the  United 
States,  Mr.  Thomas  S.  Townsend,  of  New  York,  who  had  the 
foresight  to  arrange  a  systematic  plan  for  making  a  record  of  the 
successive  events  of  the  war." 

The  Northern  Whi^,  of  Belfast,  Ireland. — "  The  most  singu- 
lar and  interesting  record  of  the  war  has  been  compiled  by  Mr. 
Townsend,  of  New  York,  and  the  value  of  his  compilation  to  a 
future  historian  is  inestimable." 

The  New  York  Evening  Post. — "  No  work  has  been  compiled 
which  will  convey  to  posterity  a  more  truthful  and  perfect  his- 
tory of  the  late  conflict."  And  the  editors,  themselves  well  known 
in  the  field  of  historical  research,  emphatically  said,  on  another 
occasion,  that  '"it  is  a  work  of  peculiar  interest,  in  that  it  is  the 
first  attempt  ever  made  to  collect  and  arrange  for  the  convenient 
use  of  future  historians  the  record  of  great  events  as  given  from 
day  to  day,  during  their  occurrence,  in  the  newspaper  press." 

The  New  York  World. — No  such  mass  of  material  for  the 
future  historian  has  ever  been  gathered  by  any  one  of  whom  we 
know  or  have  heard.  It  is  the  richest  store  of  current  history 
that  was  ever  collected,  and  no  historian  ever  yet  had  so  copious 
a  store  of  material  to  draw  upon." 

The  New  York  Herald. — "  It  has  been  a  labor  of  love  with 
the  author,  for  otherwise  he  could  never  have  toiled  on  for  years, 
as  he  has  done,  without  any  encouragement,  except  the  knowl- 
edge of  the  benefit  he  was  conferring  on  mankind.  Such  a  work 
as  this  will  lengthen  the  lives  of  the  great  men  of  the  future  by 
rendering  unnecessary  the  immense  waste  of  time  which  the 
want  of  ready  and  reliable  information  has  hitherto  imposed  on 
historical  writers." 

Resolution  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society. — "  Resolved, 
that  the  New  York  Historical  Society  acknowledges  the  services 
rendered  to  the  cause  of  history  by  Mr.  Thomas  S.  Townsend,  of 
this  city,  in  the  foresight,  skill,  and  perseverance  displayed  in 
the  preparation  of  his  work." 

Resolution  of  the  Union  League  Club  of  Nezv  York. — "  It 
will,  in  the  opinion  of  this  Club,  be  invaluable,  if  not  indispens- 
able, to  the  future  historian,  of  the  sublime  struggle  through 
which  our  country  has  just  passed." 



The  following  constitute  the  GRAND  DIVISIONS 
of  the  Compendium,  and  all  of  which  have  their  SUB- 

BuchanarL  s  Administration  {Latter  Days  of ). — 400  statements. 

Port  Sumter. — 175  statements. 

The  Trent  Affair. — 200  statements. 

The  Federal  Government. — Executive,  State,  Treasury  De- 
partments, and  records  of  all  officers  connected  therewith. 

Congress. — Daily  Proceedings,  Speeches,  Documents  con- 
nected with  the  proceedings. 

The  Confederate  Government. — Executive,  State,  Treasury 
Departments,  and  Records  of  their  officers. 

Confederate  Congress. — Proceedings,  Speeches,  and  Docu- 
ments emanating  therefrom. 

The  Federal  Army. — Rules  and  Regulations,  Foreign  Officers, 
Deserters,  Pensions,  Prisoners  of  War,  Strength  of  the  Army  at 
different  periods.  Military  Departments,  The  Draft,  the  Army  as 
compared  with  those  of  other  nations,  Records  of  Secretary  Cam- 
eron and  Secretary  Stanton,  West  Point,  the  Sanitary,  Christian, 
and  Allotment  Commissions,  Colored  Troops,  Losses  in  the 
War,  etc. 

The  Confederate  Army. — An  arrangement  similar  to  that  of 
the  "  Federal  Army." 

The  Federal  Navy. 

The  Confederate  Navy. 

Foreign  Relations. — See  "  State  Department,"  "  Federal 
Government,"  also  "  State  Department,"  "  Confederate  Gov- 

Union  Generals. — Their  Records. 

Confederate  Generals.— T\)<i\x  Records. 

The  Blockade. 


Law  and  Decisions. — International  Questions,  etc. 

Ecclesiastical  Documents. — Action  of  the  Churches,  North 
and  South  ;  Sermons,  etc. 

Political  Prisoners. — Alphabetical  Lists,  and  all  statements 
concerning  each  individual. 

Heroes. — Dead  and  Living. 

Historical  References. 

Regimental  Records. — Every  Regiment,  Union  and  Confed- 
erate ;  also,  Indian  Regiments.  (The  records  of  Confederate 
regiments  include  the  names  of  all  privates  as  well  as  officers  who 
may  have  been  captured  or  died  while  prisoners  of  war). 

Battles,  Sieges  and  Skirmishes. — The  Virginia  Campaign 
between  Generals  Grant  and  Lee  occupies  alone  2500  pages  of 
"  The  Compendium  or  Digest." 

Speeches. — Speeches  delivered  throughout  the  world,  in 
alphabetical  order. 

Letters. — Reports,  Messages,  Correspondence,  Proclama- 
tions, Poems,  Portraits,  Maps. 


Records  of  States,  Cities,  Towns,  etc. 

Maine.  Minnesota. 

New  Hampshire.  Kansas. 

Vermont.  California. 

Massachusetts.  Kentucky. 

Connecticut.  Missouri. 

Rhode  Island.  Oregon. 

New  York.  Nevada. 

New  Jersey.  Colorado. 

Pennsylvania.  Virginia. 

Maryland.  North  Carolina. 

Delaware.  South  Carolina. 

District  of  Columbia.  Georgia. 

Western  Virginia.  Louisiana. 

Ohio.  Alabama. 

Michigan.  Arkansas. 

Indiana.  Mississippi. 

Illinois.  Tennessee. 

Iowa.  Florida. 

Wisconsin.  Texas. 

The  Territories  and  Indians. 

The  Invasion  of  Mexico. 

Canada. — The  St.  Albans  Raid,  etc. 

Editorials  of  the  Press  are  classified,  and  succeed  the  various 
subjects,  /.  €.,  editorials  on  the  State  of  Virginia. 

The  following  list  of  the  Subdivisions  of  the  State  of  New 
York  will  indicate  the  scope,  plan  and  arrangement  of  the 
Divisions  of  all  other  States  and  subjects. 


The  State  Government — The  Common  Council  of  the  City 
of  New  York — Military  Documents — The  Legislatures — State 
Conventions — Political  Campaigns — Records  of  Public  Men  of 
New  York — Public  and  Individual  Acts  of  Patriotism — The 
Union  Defence  Committee — National  War  Committees — The 
Chamber  of  Commerce — State  and  Harbor  Defences — The  Banks, 
Financial  Matters  and  the  Stock  Exchange — The  Draft  and 
the  Riots — Plot  to  Burn  the  City  of  New  York— General  Dix 
and  the  Military  Department  of  New  York — The  Union  League 
Club — Historical  Documents — The  City  of  Brooklyn,  Albany 
and  other  Cities — Editorials  on  the  State  of  New  York. 


In  1860,  when  the  first  mutterings  of  the  impending  storm 
gave  evidence  of  startling  events  in  the  near  future,  Mr.  Towns- 
end  grasped  the  idea  of  making  timely  notes  of  every  occurrence 
in  connection  with  the  crisis.  It  was  in  anticipation  of  the  im- 
pressive words  of  Major  Theodore  Winthrop,  who,  with  an  ex- 
piring breath,  early  in  the  contest,  urged  that  a  careful  record  of 
the  occurring  events  of  the  historical  epoch  be  preserved,  that  in 
the  latter  days  of  Buchanan's  administration,  and  six  months 
before  the  war,  this  stupendous  work  was  begun.  Of  course, 
Mr.  Townsend,  at  that  early  stage  of  the  disturbances,  vaguely 
foresaw  the  far-reaching  possibilities  of  the  impending  conflict, 
else  his  massive  collection  would  never  have  existed,  for  no  man 
would  have  deemed  it  practicable  or  expedient  to  attempt  the 
work  of  faithfully  and  unremittingly  pursuing  such  an  under- 
taking. From  moderate  beginnings  it,  in  time,  increased  with 
the  profuse  material  which  continued  to  flow  into  the  compiler's 
hands  from  all  quarters,  until,  to  do  the  subject  ample  justice 
and  diligently  follow  up  the  compilation,  the  assistance  of  com- 

petent  clerks  became  imperative.  Seizing  upon  every  published 
statement  as  contributing  to  the  literature  of  the  subject  at  the 
time  of  publication,  the  compiler  has  devoted  to  the  work  not 
only  the  years  covered  by  hostilities,  but  those  which  have  since 
followed,  until  his  labors  have  extended  through  more  than  a 
quarter  of  a  century,  with  the  result  of  having  brought  together 
the  most  extensive  collection  of  data  under  one  head  ever 


The  work  is  in  three  parts — "  The  Journalistic  Record," 
"The  Compendium,  or  Digest,"  and  the  Index  to  the  Depart- 
ments of  the  Compendium. 

The  Record  contains  everything  of  National  importance 
concerning  the  great  conflict — not  merely  down  to  the  end  of 
battle-fields,  but  to  the  close  of  the  equally  important  strife  con- 
nected with  the  re-organization  of  the  Union  by  the  re-admission 
of  the  seceded  States.  And  in  this  connection  it  is  essential  to 
remember  that  an  immense  mass  of  valuable  information  con- 
cerning men  and  things  on  all  sides,  North  as  well  as  South,  has 
been  attainable  only  since  the  close  of  the  war,  as  it  has  been 
elicited  by  the  discussions  in  congress,  in  legislatures,  in  histori- 
cal societies,  in  obituary  notices,  magazine  articles — such  as 
"  The  Century  "  and  ''  The  Southern  Bivouac  " — and  in  con- 
troversies of  persons  engaged  on  both  sides  since  the  close  of 
armed  strife.  No  party  bias  has  been  allowed  to  interfere  with 
the  thorough  compilation  of  the  descriptive  narratives,  comments 
and  reviews  of  correspondents,  journalists,  and  public  men  of 
every  political  creed,  whether  of  the  North  or  South. 

"  The  Journalistic  Record  "  comprises  87  volumes,  containing 
as  much  printed  matter  as  could  be  placed  in  1200  volumes  of 
ordinary  octavo  size.  As  the  arrangement  is  in  four  columns 
on  each  page,  a  curious  statistician  "calculated"  that  if  the 
columns  were  arranged  in  a  column  line,  they  would  measure 
nearly  one  hundred  miles. 

The  preparation  of  these  volumes  of  "  The  Record  "  has 
been,  however,  the  least  laborious  portion  of  the  work,  only  one- 
tenth  of  the  time  of  the  compiler  having  been  occupied  upon  it, 
while  nine-tenths  have  been  devoted  to  the  Compendium  or  Di- 
gest, which  is  not  an  index,  but  an  analysis  of,  and  guide  to,  the 
contents  of  this  immense  collection. 


The  Compendium  or  Digest  will  compHse  nearly  Thirty 
Volumes^  or  40,000  of  the  largest  size  pages  of  manuscript.  All 
elegantly  bound  in  Russia  leather. 

To  study  the  history  of  any  particular  subject  by  means  of 
"  The  Record  "  alone  would  be  impossible  ;  therefore,  in  order 
to  make  this  great  mass  of  information  available,  the  compiler 
decided  that  the  mercantile  principle  of  keeping  accounts  wa:.  "•'' 
true  one — to  regard  "  The  Journalistic  Record,"  in  the  lig^ 
a  merchant's  day-book,  then  to  journalize  the  contents  of  "  le 
Record,"  and  from  the  journals  to  redistribute  the  entries  to 
their  appropriate  departments,  in  what  a  merchant  would  term 
his  ledger,  but  which  the  compiler  calls  "The  Compendium  or 
Digest."  Each  fact  or  statement  in  a  report,  or  a  letter,  or  in 
an  editorial,  is  separately  entered  in  the  journal.  This  portion 
of  the  work  requires  a  journal  of  1,200  pages  to  comprise  an 
epitome  of  each  of  the  eighty-seven  volumes  of  "The  Record." 
These  journals  or  waste  books  are  removed  when  their  entries 
are  systematically  transferred  to  the  various  departments  of 
"The  Compendium  or  Digest."  The  student  or  investigator  has 
now  before  him  in  "The  Digest  "  a  statement  of  each  subject,  so 
that  the  manifold  and  intricate  episodes  of  the  war,  its  origin, 
progress,  and  consequences,  can  be  developed  instantaneously, 
whether  the  suljject  relates  to  military  matters  or  finance,  foreign 
relations,  or  State  fidelity.  Every  general,  regiment,  State,  and 
battle  has  its  department.  As  a  specimen  of  the  many  in- 
quiries for  information  received  by  the  compiler,  it  may  be  men- 
tioned that,  after  long  and  unavailing  efforts  to  obtain  certain 
facts  and  documents,  General  N.  P.  Banks,  in  1870,  wrote  from 
the  Capitol  to  Mr.  Townsend,  in  New  York,  to  obtain  (if  pos- 
sible) a  copy  of  a  certain  letter.  In  acknowledging  the  receipt 
of  the  information  he  wanted,  General  Banks  wrote  that  he  had 
"  never  before  been  able  to  find  any  person  who  had  seen  "  the 
letter.  "  1  am  very  glad  that  you  have  been  able  to  find  so  clear 
a  trace  of  it,  for  I  began  to  think,  so  little  was  it  known,  that  I 
might  have  been  mistaken  myself  in  regard  to  its  contents,"  add- 
ing, that  this  letter  is  '"  one  of  the  most  important  publications 
of  the  war,"  and  that  "  the  ])reservation  of  such  matters  is  a 
good  evidence  of  the  value  of  your  collection." 

A  solitary  example  may   ilfustrate  the  manifold  ways  in  which 
the    Toivnsend  Records  are   referred  to  concerning  the  interests 


and  feelings  of  those  who  were  privates  in  the  ranks,  as  well  as 
by  prominent  officers  like  Gen.  Banks,  and  others.  In  a  recent 
letter,  Mr.  R.  R.  Knapp  says  to  Mr.  Townsend  :  "  I  have  to 
thank  you  for  the  valuable  information  received  through  your 
'  Compendium '  regarding  B.  Beach  Kennedy,  formerly  of  Com- 
pany E,  in  the  Sixth  U.  S.  Cavalry.  He  is  suffering  from  a 
wound  received  in  1862,  and  is  refused  a  pension  because  he  is 
unable  to  prove  that  he  was  wounded  at  Slatersville.  I  myself, 
aember  of  his  company,  was  away  on  detached  duty  at  the 
/,  and  can  only  testify  to  my  knowledge  and  belief — others  of 
ti  command  are  scattered,  no  one  knows  where.  The  officer 
in  command  of  the  company  at  the  time  is  out  of  service,  and  all 
letters  fail  to  reach  him.  And,  but  for  your  valuable  information 
— even  to  day  and  date,  this  man,  who  well  deserves  the  pension  of 
his  government,  might  die  for  the  need  of  it." 


The  Index  is  in  one  volume.  To  study,  for  instance,  the 
record  of  a  general  officer,  the  Index  refers  to  the  volumes  and 
pages  of  "The  Compendium  "  where  the  records  of  Union  or 
Confederate  Generals  may  be  found,  and  in  that  department  will 
be  found  every  item  of  information  concerning  the  individual, 
presented  in  the  eighty-seven  volumes  of  "  The  Journalistic 
Record,"  with  reference  in  connection  with  each  statement,  to 
the  volume  and  page  of  the  same  for  the  authority  upon  which 
the  entry  is  recorded. 


' '  Turn  to  the  press,  its  teeming  sheets  survey, 
Big  with  the  wonders  of  each  passing  day." 

"  The  newspapers,"  said  Carlyle,  "constitute  the  essence  of 
all  history.  They  are  the  mirrors  in  which  events  show  them- 
selves in  their  very  form  and  pressure."  Turn  over  the  files  of 
the  American  journals  cotemporary  with  the  Revolution  of  1776, 
and  you  will  see  the  value  of  the  living  records  of  the  times. 
The  Hon.  John  C.  Hamilton,  in  a  letter  to  a  friend  commendatory 
of  Mr.  Townsend's  work,  said  :  "  In  preparing  my  '  History  of 
the  Republic  of  the  United  States,'  I  was,  excepting  the  few 
papers  of  my  father's,  during  the  period  which  elapsed  between 



1783  and  '88,  chiefly  indebted  to  the  newspapers  for  the  materials 
of  the  work.  Unless  you  have  been  engaged  in  a  similar  labor, 
you  could  not  imagine  the  difficulty  of  preparing  a  valuable  nar- 
rative from  merely  documentary  material." 

So,  in  after  generations,  the  records  of  the  transactions  of 
our  times  will  be  equally  marvellous  ;  and  it  is  not  too  much  to 
say  that  the  newspapers  of  the  present  age  have  necessitated  a 
new  style  of  history. 

Daniel  Webster  said  :  '"  If  you  want  to  find  genuine  history* 
you  must  look  for  it  in  the  newspapers  and  in  private  letters." 

"  Where  can  we  find  greater  accuracy  than  in  the  leading 
newspapers?"  said  Edward  Everett.  "  The  errors  which  one 
paper  makes  is  very  speedily  corrected  by  the  others,  and  in 
this  age  of  inquiry  and  debate,  if  Truth  every  emerges  from  the 
well  in  which  she  is  said  to  abide,  it  is  to  clothe  herself  in  print. 
The  Press  is  the  mouthpiece  of  the  people.  Their  aspirations 
their  purposes,  their  antipathies,  are  the  staple  of  its  argument 
day  by  day.  There  is  not  a  wave,  not  a  ripple  in  the  minds  of 
the  community  that  it  does  not  reflect.  It  occupies  the  position 
of  a  perpetual  Congress,  and  the  measures  upon  which  it  agrees 
are  invariably  adopted  before  any  considerable  lapse  of  time." 


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